On this page, you will find abstracts of research articles that are concerned with various aspects to do with the use of storytelling to enhance mathematics teaching and learning, be it through reading story picture books or creative writing.
To access and read these articles in full, you (or your affiliated institution) need to have a subscription to the hosting journal. Some articles are, however, available free of charge, and are indicated so below.
Only articles that have been published in peer-reviewed journals are included. Conference proceedings and theses/dissertations are excluded. Articles that are written either by or for practitioners can be found here.
Please note that some articles below focus on the use of just 'picture books' (that is picture books without any narrative or story element) in their research, as opposed to what we explicitly advocate (i.e. story picture books, that is picture books with a narrative element). That said, we still include these articles below in hope that some of you might still find them relevant.
An, S., Tinajero, J., Tillman, D., & Kim, S. J. (2019) Preservice teachers’ development of literacy-themed mathematics instruction for early childhood classrooms. International Journal of Early Childhood, 51, 41–57.
Abstract: There is a history of innovative educators who have taught mathematics through literacy-based activities that enable children to connect new mathematical knowledge using children’s real-life experiences. The picture book, Math Curse, was utilized as the stimulus for 72 preservice teachers to analyze the structure and content of the mathematics-themed storybook and, subsequently write their own version of such a story. The stories were coded for content themes and coverage of mathematical content. The stories covered all major mathematical content areas, around themes such as family life, school, and sports. The research findings illustrate how preservice teachers could creatively generate mathematically focused stories for students so that young children could identify with the characters and storylines and imagine how mathematical concepts apply in everyday activities. This research with preservice teachers provided preservice teachers with knowledge and insights into how they could embed mathematics instruction into a story format. It also increased the likelihood that the preservice teachers could apply this knowledge in their future classrooms.
Anderson, A., Anderson, J., & Shapiro, J. (2004). Mathematical discourse in shared storybook reading. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 35(1), 5-33.
Abstract: The purpose of the study reported in this article was to explore the mathematical discourse in which four dyads engaged while sharing the storybook One Snowy Night (Butterworth, 1989) while at home or in other locations (e.g., day care centers). Each dyad consisted of a mother and her four-year-old child. Various discourse patterns were evident, and while there were commonalities across dyads, each pair shared the book in unique ways. In two of the dyads, the mother initiated the mathematical discourse; in the other two, the child did. Size, subitizing, and counting were the most common mathematical concepts that emerged. One dyad attended to a single concept of size, and the other dyads attended to more than one mathematical idea. Some parents scaffolded particular problem-solving strategies; others provided more generic support. Based on our findings, we discuss insights and issues and make suggestions for further research.
Björklund, C. & Palmér, H. (2020). Preschoolers’ reasoning about numbers in picture books. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 22(3), 195-213.
Abstract: In this article we report on a study of children’s attention to numerical content in picture books. Specific research questions are 1) how the content in a designed picture book directs children’s attention to numbers, and 2) what kind of numerical reasoning the book reading entails. To answer these questions, we conducted an educational design research study in two cycles, with a specially designed picture book and two ways of reading: first without any prompting from the reading teacher, and second with teacher-child interaction. Nineteen preschool children (aged 3–5 years) and three teachers participated in video-observed individual reading sessions. The observations of the reading activities were analyzed with focus on the children’s attention to numbers as well as on their numerical reasoning during the book talks. Based on the observations, we suggest that preschool children do direct their attention to aspects of numbers, but that the design of the pictures and the framing of the reading sessions influence which numerical aspects are discerned. Furthermore, teachers’ support in transforming empirical clues into mathematical representations and comparisons seems critical for more advanced reasoning about numbers to occur.
Björklund, C. & Palmér, H. (2022). Teaching toddlers the meaning of numbers - connecting modes of mathematical representations in book reading. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 110, 525–544.
Abstract: In this article, we direct attention to what becomes critical in teaching activities for toddlers (1–3-year-olds) to learn the meaning of numbers. One activity we thoroughly explore is interactive book reading, based on previous research indicating positive learning outcomes from this type of mathematical activity, as it has shown to simultaneously embrace the child’s perspective and encourage interaction and ‘number talk.’ A specially designed picture book presenting small quantities was developed, and variation theory principles were embedded in both the book design and the teaching acts. Through qualitative analyses, we aim to identify what is critical in the interactive book reading sessions for toddlers to discern essential aspects of numbers, with a specific focus on the conditions for making modes of representations into resources for learning. Preschool teachers frequently read the book to 27 toddlers over the course of a year. Video documentation of their reading sessions was analyzed, and exposed the significance of addressing the child’s perspective when choosing what representation to emphasize and in what ways connections within and between representations can be made. Thus, the study contributes knowledge on the teaching of numbers with toddlers, and problematizes as well as extends the potential of interactive book reading as a quality-enhancing educational tool.
Can, D., & Durmaz, B. (2022). An analysis of teachers’ beliefs about the integration of children’s literature into the mathematics education. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education.
Abstract: This study, in which the explanatory mixed design was used, has two aims. The first aim is the development of a scale to determine teachers’ beliefs about the integration of mathematics and children’s literature. The second one is to examine the beliefs of teachers on children’s literature and mathematics teaching, with the data collected through the scale. The items of the scale developed within the scope of the study were created based on the literature and the opinions of 56 teachers who were aware of this topic (phase 1). The draft scale was applied to 392 teachers. After the validity and reliability studies, the scale was finalized. Accordingly, the scale has four dimensions and 33 items: positive pedagogical effects of the integration, the role of resources influencing the integration process, teacher competencies that make the integration process difficult and social norms, and teacher competencies that facilitate the integration process (phase 2). The data were collected from 772 pre-school, primary, and middle school teachers (phase 3) to reveal teachers’ beliefs about the mathematics and children’s literature integration through the final form of the scale. The results indicate that pre-school teachers have much higher scores in contrast to the primary and middle school teachers except for the dimension of the role of resources influencing the integration process, and novice teachers have more positive beliefs about the positive pedagogical effects of integration and their competencies in this regard. Also, the beliefs about the integration process significantly vary based on the awareness levels about integration.
Capraro, R. M. & Capraro, M. M. (2006). Are you really going to read us a story? Learning geometry through children's mathematics literature. Reading Psychology, 27(1), 21-36.
Abstract: This study analyzed how one teacher used contemporary children's literature to supplement middle-grades geometry. The teacher's students were matched to students in other classes on general reading, general mathematics, and geometry. Student and teacher interviews, observation notes, and video tape recordings provided insights into fluency and flexibility with mathematical vocabulary. On the three outcome measures, the groups showed little change in general reading and a modest increase in general mathematics abilities. In contrast, the students in the children's literature group showed markedly improved performance in geometry. Analyses indicated these students: (a) showed fluency with geometry vocabulary, (b) demonstrated flexibility in the application of geometry concepts, (c) explained formulae with rich descriptions, and (d) outperformed the non story group on geometry ability when controlling for pretest performance.
Casey, B., Kersh, J. E., & Young, J. M. (2004). Storytelling sagas: An effective medium for teaching early childhood mathematics. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 19, 167–172.
Abstract: This article describes a unique supplementary program that teaches early childhood mathematics (Pre-K to Grade 2), through a series of six problem-solving adventure stories. The mathematics concepts are taught to the children through the medium of oral storytelling sagas in an integrated approach that addresses language arts as well as early childhood mathematics competencies. Teachers and schools can select from the supplementary books in this series to enrich and address gaps in their present mathematics curriculum based on the most recent NCTM [Principles and Standards for School Mathematics, National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Reston, VA, 2000] standards recommending a stronger emphasis on geometry, measurement, pre-algebra, and graphing skills.
Cooper, S., Nesmith, S., & Schwarz, G. (2011). Exploring graphic novels for elementary science and mathematics. School Library Research, 14, 1-17.
Abstract: Prompted by the recent surge in the popularity and utilization of graphic novels in the elementary classroom as well as trends toward the publication of content-focused graphic novels, the research described in this study was designed to explore educators’ perspectives toward the medium as well as the issue of quality in graphic novels with science or math content. Qualitative results recorded through evaluation forms and focus-group sessions revealed the existence of variance in participants’ perspectives. However, these results also indicate potential benefits and perceived problems or concerns.
Cotti, R. & Schiro, M. (2004). Connecting teacher beliefs to the use of children’s literature in the teaching of mathematics. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 7(4), 329-356.
Abstract: This article presents examples that illustrate how teachers use children’s literature in the teaching of mathematics. The examples are related to four curriculum ideologies that have influenced mathematics education in the USA for the last 75 years. It discusses why it is relevant to help teachers understand the ideological positions that influence their use of children’s literature during mathematics instruction, summarizes the four ideological positions, and presents results of a study of how teachers’ ideological positions relate to their use of children’s literature in the teaching of mathematics. The study examines two research questions “Can an instructional tool be developed that will highlight for teachers the different ways in which they and others use children’s literature to teach mathematics?” and “Can that instructional tool stimulate teacher discussion and reflection about their own beliefs and the ideological nature of the instructional environment in which they learned (as students) and teach (as teachers)?” Study results indicate that both questions can be answered in the affirmative.
Darragh, L. (2018). Loving and loathing: Portrayals of school mathematics in young adult fiction. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 49(2), 178-209.
Abstract: Images of mathematics and mathematicians are often negative and stereotyped. These portrayals may work to construct our impressions of mathematics and influence students’ identity with and future participation in the subject. This study examined young adult fiction as a context in which school mathematics is portrayed and constructed. I used positioning theory and the notion of story lines to analyze a sample of 59 books. Portrayals of school mathematics within this sample involved multiple story lines, including school mathematics as being obligatory but not useful and mathematics classes as tense, terrible, difficult, and different but perhaps as places in which to find love. Portrayals of mathematics teachers were extremely stereotyped, and some girls were just as likely as boys to be positioned as able mathematics learners.
Edelman, J. (2017). How preservice teachers use children’s literature to teach mathematical concepts: Focus on mathematical knowledge for teaching. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 9(4), 741-752.
Abstract: This descriptive study examines the elements of mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT) that elementary teacher candidates exhibit as they plan, teach, and reflect on a mathematics lesson that integrates children’s literature. Data for this study were gathered from observations and written work of preservice elementary teacher candidates enrolled in a methods of teaching mathematics course. The data were analyzed using three criteria: that of knowledge of content and students, knowledge of content and teaching, and knowledge of content and curriculum. The findings suggest a need for further development of teacher candidates’ ability to identify and locate mathematical concepts in children’s literature, as well as the need for supporting teacher candidates’ critical analysis of curricular materials and mathematical representations in children’s literature.
Edelman, J., Green, K., & Jett, C. C. (2019). Children’s literature to inform mathematics teaching and learning: A systematic review of the research literature from 1991–2016. The International Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Learning, 26(1), 49-60.
Abstract: Teaching mathematics using children’s literature is a commonly promoted practice in mathematics curricula, practitioner journals, and teacher preparation programs. Integrating children’s literature with mathematics has been assumed to have a positive impact on students’ mathematical knowledge; however, few formal reviews of the research have been completed. This systematic review provides a synthesis of research on children’s literature and mathematics teaching and learning during a twenty-five-year period (1991–2016). Findings indicate that although there are many publications on this topic, few are based on empirical research. Using scholarly education research databases, twenty-three articles on the integration of children’s literature and mathematics were identified as containing a report of empirical research. These articles are organized into four themes in this review: effects on student achievement, impact on students’ motivation and engagement, increased mathematical discourse, and best practices for teacher preparation and pedagogy. The majority of studies concluded that integrating children’s literature and mathematics has positive impacts on teaching and learning mathematics for teachers and students. This systematic review provides an audit of the existing research and identifies areas for future research and practice.
Elia, I., Van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, M., & Georgiou, A. (2010). The role of pictures in picture books on children's cognitive engagement with mathematics. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 18(3), 275-297.
Abstract: The present study examines the cognitive activity that is evoked in young children when they are read a picture book that is written for the purpose of teaching mathematics. The focus of this study is to explore the effects of pictures on children's spontaneous mathematical cognitive engagement. The study is based on the assumption that the pictures in a picture book that is aimed at supporting children's learning of mathematics can have story‐related components and mathematics‐related components. The story‐related components of the pictures contribute to grasp the global story context of the text and the mathematics‐related components help to understand the mathematical content of the story. All of the pictures of the book under investigation, Six brave little monkeys in the jungle, have both story‐related and mathematics‐related components included. The pictures have a representational or an informational function. Four 5‐year‐old children were read individually the book by one of the authors without any probing. A detailed coding framework was used for analyzing the children's utterances that provided an in‐depth picture of the children's cognitive activity. The results show that the picture book as a whole has the potential for cognitively engaging children. However, the pictures with a representational function were found to elicit mathematical thinking to a greater extent than the pictures with an informational function. Moreover, this was found for both types of components included in the pictures. Findings are discussed, practical implications for using picture books in kindergarten are drawn and suggestions for further research are made.
Farrugia, M. T., & Trakulphadetkrai, N. V. (2020). Maltese teachers’ beliefs concerning the integration of children’s literature in mathematics teaching and learning. Cogent Education, 7(1). https://doi.org/10.1080/2331186X.2020.1817253
Abstract: This exploratory mixed-methods study set out to explore Maltese primary school teachers’ perceived barriers to, and enablers for, the integration of children’s literature in mathematics teaching. Data were collected by means of an online questionnaire and semi-structured interviews, and analysed thematically using Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behaviour. The responses given by the participants showed that integration of mathematics and stories was not a common practice. The perceived barriers were categorised as Resource Constraint, Time Constraint, Lack of Pedagogical Knowledge and Confidence, Doubts about Outcome Expectancy, and Inhibiting Social Norms while the three perceived enablers identified were Pedagogical Benefits, Love of Stories, and Enabling Social Norms. Given that the majority of the participating teachers acknowledged the potential benefits of the approach and expressed a wish for training, one key recommendation of the study is for teaching mathematics through stories to be explicitly included in pre-service and in-service professional development programmes.
Flevares, L. M. & Schiff, J. R. (2014). Learning mathematics in two dimensions: A review and look ahead at teaching and learning early childhood mathematics with children’s literature. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 146-157.
Abstract: In the past 25 years an identifiable interest in using children’s literature in mathematics learning emerged (Clyne and Griffiths, 1991; Welchman-Tischler, 1992; Hong, 1996; Hellwig et al., 2000; Haury, 2001). We critically review the rationales given for the use of picture books in mathematics learning, with a special focus on geometry due to its underrepresentation in this body of literature and the need for greater focus on this topic. The benefits and effectiveness of using picture books for children’s mathematics learning and interest have been documented (Hong, 1996; O’Neill et al., 2004; Young-Loveridge, 2004). For geometry, although much learning of shape ideas should be hands-on, twodimensional figures are essential to develop children’s understanding of plane geometry. Books may effectively engage pre-literate children with plane shapes (van den HeuvelPanhuizen and van den Boogaard, 2008; Skoumpourdi and Mpakopoulou, 2011) and shapes as gestalt wholes or prototypes (van Hiele, 1986; Clements et al., 1999; Hannibal, 1999). We review several guidelines and evaluative criteria for book selection, including Cianciolo (2000), Schiro (1997), Hunsader (2004), and van den Heuvel-Panhuizen and Elia (2012). Geometry concepts have proven challenging for young students, but their difficulties may stem, in part, from inadequate teacher training and professional development (Clements and Sarama, 2000; Chard et al., 2008) which lead to misconceptions (Oberdorf and TaylorCox, 1999; Inan and Dogan-Temur, 2010). Using picture books in teacher training may be an inviting way for early childhood teachers to enhance their own knowledge.We will examine the literature for guidance on incorporating children’s literature into teacher training. In closing we will outline a comprehensive, multi-pronged agenda for best instructional practices for selection and use of children’s books in mathematics activities and for teacher training.
Gaylord, S. M., O’Rear, C. D., Hornburg, C. B., McNeil, N. M. (2020). Preferences for tactile and narrative counting books across parents with different education levels. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 50(3), 29-39.
Abstract: Counting books are a potential source of input for children’s learning of early mathematics concepts. However, little is known about the factors that affect the counting books parents choose for their children. Parents (N = 696) of preschoolers (ages 2;6–4;11) were surveyed about their preferences for two specific counting book features, tactility and narrative quality. These two features were studied both covertly, by experimentally manipulating the types of books parents saw and asking parents why they would choose particular books, and explicitly, by asking parents to rate the importance of various factors when choosing counting books for their children. The a priori hypotheses were that parents would prefer tactile over non-tactile counting books for boys and narrative over non-narrative counting books for girls and that education level would be positively associated with counting book reading. Results did not support these hypotheses. Instead, parents’ preferences for the features depended on their education level. Higher education levels were generally associated with decreased preference for tactility and increased preference for narrative quality. Results raise the question of whether the books parents choose for their children may be one way parent education shapes children's early learning environments.
Godwin, A. J., Rupley, W. H., Capraro, R. M., & Capraro, M. M. (2016). Reading and mathematics bound together: Creating a home environment for preschool learning. Journal of Education and Learning, 5(1), 44-59.
Abstract: The combination of mathematics and reading in family reading time can positively impact children’s ability to make sense of representations in both mathematics and reading. Four families volunteered to participate in this field based inquiry to learn how to integrate mathematics and reading in parent-supported activities. Four parents and their preschool aged children together attended training sessions to learn and practice how to create a home environment supportive of both reading and mathematics. Each parent completed questionnaires about implementation of the four training sessions with their child. Parent responses were overwhelmingly positive regarding the suggested behaviors for creating a pro-reading/mathematics home environment. Parents reported that the reading and mathematics home instruction activities gave children learning opportunities from combining early mathematics skills and reading skills and they also learned new vocabulary. Home learning activities also helped children learn effortful control skills when reading and talking about mathematics storybooks. There was also rapport building through family conversations that were attributed to parents’ use of instructional activities.
Goldstein A., Cole T., & Cordes, S. (2016). How parents read counting books and non-numerical books to their preverbal infants: An observational study. Frontiers Psychology, 7. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01100
Abstract: Studies have stressed the importance of counting with children to promote formal numeracy abilities; however, little work has investigated when parents begin to engage in this behavior with their young children. In the current study, we investigated whether parents elaborated on numerical information when reading a counting book to their preverbal infants and whether developmental differences in numerical input exist even in the 1st year of life. Parents and their 5–10 months old infants were asked to read, as they would at home, two books to their infants: a counting book and another book that did not have numerical content. Parents’ spontaneous statements rarely focused on number and those that did consisted primarily of counting, with little emphasis on labeling the cardinality of the set. However, developmental differences were observed even in this age range, such that parents were more likely to make numerical utterances when reading to older infants. Together, results are the first to characterize naturalistic reading behaviors between parents and their preverbal infants in the context of counting books, suggesting that although counting books promote numerical language in parents, infants still receive very little in the way of numerical input before the end of the 1st year of life. While little is known regarding the impact of number talk on the cognitive development of young infants, the current results may guide future work in this area by providing the first assessment of the characteristics of parental numerical input to preverbal infants.
Green, K. B., Gallagher, P. A., & Hart, L. (2018). Integrating mathematics and children’s literature for young children with disabilities. Journal of Early Intervention, 40(1), 3-19.
Abstract: Math skills are critical for children’s future success in school, as school-entry math knowledge is the strongest predictor of later academic achievement. Although there is a recent increase of literature on math with young children, there is a scarcity of research related to young children with disabilities. This quasi-experimental study with 50 preschool aged children with disabilities examined the effects of an intervention that integrated mathematics and literature on early numeracy skills. The intervention was conducted 3 days per week for 6 weeks, and consisted of an interactive shared storybook reading including mathematical content through scripted questioning and discussions and story-related mathematical activities after the reading of the story. Children who received the intervention scored significantly higher than the comparison group in total math ability, quantity comparison, one-to-one correspondence counting, and oral counting as measured by scores on the Test of Early Mathematics Ability, Third Edition (TEMA-3) and the Individual Growth & Development Indicators Early Numeracy (IGDIS-EN).
Gunbas, N. (2015). Students’ mathematics word problem-solving achievement in a computer-based story. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 31(1), 78-95.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a computer‐based story, which was designed in anchored instruction framework, on sixth‐grade students' mathematics word problem‐solving achievement. Problems were embedded in a story presented on a computer as computer story, and then compared with the paper‐based version of the same story and to a condition that presented the problems as typical, isolated word problems (i.e., a non‐story condition including only problems). One hundred twenty‐eight sixth‐grade students from two public middle schools in Turkey participated in this study. In a pretest–posttest experimental design, students were randomly assigned to one of the treatment groups mentioned earlier in which they solved the same mathematics word problems. A one‐way analysis of covariance was used to analyse students' achievement in the treatment groups. The results indicated that students who solved the problems in the computer story treatment had significantly higher achievement scores than students who solved the problems in the paper story and isolated word problems treatments. In addition, the story was found to be significantly more effective than the non‐story treatment when it was presented on computer.
Harding, J., Hbaci, I., Loyd, S., & Hamilton, B. (2017). Integrating multicultural children's math books into kindergarten through sixth-grade classrooms: Preservice teachers' reflections. The Teacher Educator, 52(4), 386-407.
Abstract: This case study of mathematics instruction using children's literature reports on the experiences 47 elementary preservice teachers had in their mathematics methods course while completing a microteaching assignment. As part of the microteaching assignment, preservice teachers were required to plan and teach mathematics lessons based on children's books that included both mathematics concepts and multicultural aspects. The preservice teachers audio-recorded their lessons, transcribed the audio, and wrote reflective essays to articulate their experiences. At the end of the assignment, the professor and two additional researchers interviewed the preservice teachers about their experiences. Themes that emerged were (a) teaching experiences, (b) teaching performance, and (c) learning purposes and tools for integrating multicultural children's math books. The Learning Purposes and Teaching Strategies for Integrating Multicultural Mathematics Picturebooks Framework was developed to demonstrate the intricate balance needed to ensure mathematics learning happens during instruction with multicultural mathematics picturebooks.
Hassinger-Das, B., Jordan, N. C., & Dyson, N. (2015). Reading stories to learn math: Mathematics vocabulary instruction for children with early numeracy difficulties. Elementary School Journal, 116(2), 242–264.
Abstract: The present study involved examining whether a storybook reading intervention targeting mathematics vocabulary, such as “equal,” “more,” and “less,” and associated number concepts would increase at-risk children’s vocabulary knowledge and number competencies. Children with early numeracy difficulties (N = 124) were recruited from kindergarten classes in four schools. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a storybook number competencies (SNC) intervention, a number sense intervention, or a business-as-usual control. Interventions were carried out in groups of four children over 8 weeks (24 30-minute sessions). Findings demonstrated that the SNC intervention group outperformed the other groups on measures of mathematics vocabulary, both in terms of words that were closely aligned to the intervention and those that were not. There was no effect of the SNC intervention, however, on general mathematics measures, suggesting a need to provide the mathematics vocabulary work along with more intensive instruction in number concepts.
Hendrix, N. M., Hojnoski, R. L., Missall, K. N. (2019). Shared book reading to promote math talk in parent–child dyads in low-income families. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 39(1), 45-55.
Abstract: Shared book reading can facilitate meaningful mathematical interactions. This study extends prior research by exploring the effect of book content and parent training in shared book reading. A comparison phase embedded within a multiple baseline design across participants was used with three Head Start parent–child dyads to examine the effect of book type (i.e., math or nonmath) on the frequency of parent and child mathematical utterances (i.e., math talk) and to evaluate whether there was a functional relation between training as well as provision of reader’s guides and increased frequency and diversity of parent and child math talk. Overall and on average, dyads engaged in more math talk when provided with math books as compared with nonmath books. Results regarding training and provision of supplementary materials were less clear. Results are discussed with attention to multiple indicators of effectiveness and considerations for designing home mathematical interventions.
Hojnoski, R. L., Columba, H. L., & Polignano, J. (2014). Embedding mathematical dialogue in parent–child shared book reading: A preliminary investigation. Early Education and Development, 25(4), 469-492.
Abstract: Shared book reading provides a meaningful context for rich conversations to occur between a child and an adult and offers opportunities for children to be exposed to a range of vocabulary and concepts that often extend beyond their everyday experiences. Few studies have examined parent–child shared book reading as a context for embedding mathematical discussion. The purpose of this study was to examine systematically the effect of training parents to focus on mathematical concepts and vocabulary during shared book reading. Specific research questions were as follows: (a) Did parents increase their use of math talk during shared storybook reading following training? (b) Did parents generalize intervention strategies? And (c) did children increase their use of math talk during shared storybook reading? Results from a yoked multiple-baseline design with 6 dyads indicated variability across the dyads with 2 general patterns. Math talk increased following training for 3 of the dyads, whereas verbal mathematical behavior did not show consistent change for the other 3 dyads. Practice or Policy: Results are discussed in the context of home support for early mathematical development.
Hojnoski, R. L., Polignano, J., & Columba, H. L. (2016). Increasing teacher mathematical talk during shared book reading in the preschool classroom: A pilot study. Early Education and Development, 27(5), 676-691.
Abstract: Research Findings: Shared book reading provides opportunities for adults to engage in literacy-related interactions with children in meaningful ways. Research has examined various dimensions of adult and child behavior during shared book-reading interactions with some focus on how book type affects the reading experience. Little research, however, has examined systematically the use of shared book reading in a mathematical context. Thus, the purpose of the study was twofold: (a) to examine the effect of book type on teacher use of mathematical talk during shared book reading in preschool classrooms and (b) to examine the effect of training teachers specifically to use mathematical talk during shared book reading. A multielement design with 2 female preschool teachers who taught in inclusion classrooms in an urban school district was used. Results generally indicated that the use of mathematical storybooks resulted in increased teacher mathematical talk compared to the use of nonmathematical storybooks. Training and instructional supports resulted in an increase in mathematical talk over that achieved by mathematical storybooks alone. Practice or Policy: Because shared book reading is a common practice in preschool classrooms, strategically choosing books to address mathematical skills can increase attention to mathematics throughout daily routines and provide a means of increasing teacher mathematical talk.
Hong, H. (1996). Effects of mathematics learning through children's literature on math achievement and dispositional outcomes. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 11(4), 477-494.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of using children's literature to promote mathematics learning. Fifty-seven kindergarteners were randomly assigned to either a control group or an experimental group. The experimental group received mathematics related storybook reading and discussion time and played with mathematics materials that were related to the storybook content during free play. The control group had ordinary storybook reading time and played with mathematics materials unrelated to the storybook content. The Learning Readiness Test and the Early Mathematics Achievement Test were administered. Four mathematics tasks were also given to compare the mathematics achievement of the two groups. The children's choice of favorite corners, the time spent, and the number of children who played in the mathematics corner were investigated also to measure children's disposition toward doing mathematics. The results showed that more children in the experimental group liked the mathematics comer, chose mathematics tasks, and spent more time in the mathematics corner. Furthermore, the experimental group did significantly better than the control group in the classification, number combination, and shape tasks, and there were qualitative differences in the content analysis.
Jennings, C. M., Jennings, J. E., Richey, J., & Dixon-Krauss, L. (1992). Increasing interest and achievement in mathematics through children's literature. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 7(2), 263-276.
Abstract: This study was designed to test the hypothesis that using children's literature to teach mathematics concepts to kindergarten children improves their math achievement test scores, increases their interest in mathematics, and increases the number of times they use mathematical vocabulary during free play. The subjects consisted of 61 kindergarten children from two school districts in north-central Arkansas. The children were divided into experimental and control groups. The intervention was children's literature incorporated into the mathematics curriculum of the experimental group for 5 months. The control group used a traditional mathematics curriculum. Results from the Test of Early Mathematics Ability and the Metropolitan Readiness Test, and observations of vocabulary usage during free play, showed improvement in all three areas under study—achievement, interest, and vocabulary usage in mathematics.
Jett, C. C. (2014). Using mathematics literature with prospective secondary mathematics teachers. Journal of Mathematics Education at Teachers College, 5(2), 49–53.
Abstract: Literature in mathematics has been found to foster positive improvements in mathematics learning. This manuscript reports on a mathematics teacher educator’s use of literature via literature circles with 11 prospective secondary mathematics teachers in a mathematics content course. Using survey and reflection data, the author found that prospective teachers expressed either benefiting or not benefitting from the literature circle practice in this mathematics class. Finally, conclusions and recommendations for future work are shared.
Jett, C. C. (2018). The effects of children’s literature on preservice early childhood education mathematics teachers’ thinking. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 18(1), 96– 114.
Abstract: In this article, the author shares an intervention of using children’s literature as a pedagogical frame for an undergraduate mathematics content course with early childhood education majors to influence their thinking about mathematics teaching and learning. With this case study of 29 preservice teachers, the author found that literature increased preservice elementary teachers’ excitement about mathematics, heightened their self-efficacy in mathematics, and motivated them to design innovative mathematics lessons. Results highlight the continued need for mathematically competent teachers in elementary classroom spaces, and the author advocates for the incorporation of literature as a means to do this work.Finally, the author provides implications for future research and practice with other Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL)-related projects involving children’s literature.
Lemonidis, C., & Kaiafa, I. (2019). The effect of using storytelling strategy on students’ performance in fractions. Journal of Education and Learning, 8(2), 165-175.
Abstract: Research findings in the field of Mathematics Education emphasize that storytelling is an effective instructional tool in the teaching of mathematics, as it provides a meaningful context that attracts students’ interest and makes learning a pleasant process. The use of stories and fairy tales in the teaching of mathematics motivates students to learn and provides students with an authentic context to understand mathematical concepts and procedures. It is a clear way to incorporate mathematics into other, broader cognitive domains and promotes mathematical discussion in the classroom. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the role that the use of storytelling can play in teaching fractions to third grade students. The study sample consisted of 76 third graders, who attended two primary schools in the city of Florina (Greece). This sample was divided into experimental (n=38) and control (n=38) group. In this study target-focused teaching stories were used. These stories were written in accordance with the objectives of a new Curriculum for rational numbers teaching. The study results showed that the use of storytelling had a positive effect on students’ achievement in fractions, as the experimental group performed significantly better than the control group. The students who benefited most from the use of storytelling were those with medium, especially, with low performance. Finally, the use of storytelling had a positive effect on specific mathematical skills, such as comparing fractions, finding equivalent fractions, creating and manipulating representations and problem solving.
Leonard, J., Moore, C. M., & Brooks, W. (2014). Multicultural children’s literature as a context for teaching mathematics for cultural relevance in urban schools. The Urban Review Journal, 46(3), 325-348.
Abstract: This article reports on a teacher-research study that used multicultural texts as a context for teaching mathematics for cultural relevance during an elementary mathematics methods course. The results of the study reveal that 28 % (5 out of 18) of the teacher candidates (TCs) chose books that were culturally contextual or culturally amenable. However, 89 % (16 out of 18) of the TCs chose texts that were mathematically robust or mathematically peripheral. Four focal TCs were selected to examine how they used the texts with children to teach mathematics concepts. Math lessons fostered academic success, cultural competence, and critical consciousness. Overall, the results of the study are mixed. We conclude that some TCs’ choice of texts may reflect indifference, passive resistance, low self-efficacy, school culture, and mixed messages from the teacher–researcher. Additional studies that include follow-up interviews and classroom observations are needed to determine the factors that influence TCs’ selections of multicultural texts and their implementation of culturally relevant pedagogy with students.
Livy, S., Muir, T., Trakulphadetkrai, N. V., & Larkin, K. (2021). Australian primary school teachers’ perceived barriers to and enablers for the integration of children’s literature in mathematics teaching and learning. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10857-021-09517-0
Abstract: This qualitative survey study set out to investigate in-service and pre-service primary school teachers’ perceived barriers to and enablers for the integration of children’s literature in mathematics teaching and learning in an Australian educational context. While research over the past three decades have documented pedagogical benefits of teaching mathematics using children’s literature, research into teachers’ perceptions regarding the use of such resources is virtually non-existent. The study thus filled this research gap by drawing responses from open-ended survey questions of 94 in-service and 82 pre-service teachers in Australia. A thematic analysis revealed 13 perceived barriers classified under five themes with Lack of Pedagogical Knowledge and Confidence, and Time Constraint, representing 75% of all perceived barriers. Moreover, 14 perceived enablers were identified and classified under five themes with Pedagogical Benefits and Love of Stories representing around 70% of all perceived enablers. Findings also showed that most of the teachers in the study (around 75%) never or infrequently used children’s literature in their mathematics classrooms. The study highlights the role of professional learning and teacher training in ensuring that both in- and pre-service teachers have the necessary pedagogical knowledge, experience and confidence in using children’s literature to enrich their mathematics teaching.
McAndrew, E. M., Morris, W. L., & Fennell, F. (2017). Geometry-related children's literature improves the geometry achievement and attitudes of second-grade students. School Science and Mathematics, 117(1-2), 34-51.
Abstract: Use of mathematics-related literature can engage students' interest and increase their understanding of mathematical concepts. A quasi-experimental study of two second-grade classrooms assessed whether daily inclusion of geometry-related literature in the classroom improved attitudes toward geometry and achievement in geometry. Consistent with the hypothesis, only the students in the classroom with a strong emphasis on geometry-related children's literature showed a significant improvement in their attitudes about geometry over time. While both classes improved their geometry performance over the 4 weeks of the study, the class with a strong emphasis on geometry-related literature improved significantly more (51.2%) than the control class (33.47%). Children's literature can provide a useful and interesting context in which students can develop their understanding of geometry.
McGuire, P., Himot, B., Clayton, G., Yoo, Monica, & Logue, M. E. (2020). Booked on math: Developing math concepts in Pre-K Classrooms using interactive read-alouds. Early Childhood Education Journal. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10643-020-01073-1
Abstract: This paper outlines the development and implementation of a ten-week micro-curriculum, Booked on Math, designed to introduce preschool children to foundational mathematics concepts through interactive read-alouds. The Booked on Math curricula includes ten book readings and associated inquiry-based lesson plans. Booked on Math read-alouds and lesson plans were implemented across six preschool classrooms over a ten-week period in a university-based early childcare center. A total of 74 pre-kindergarten students participated in the project with four classrooms receiving the Booked on Math intervention and two classrooms serving as the control group. Pre- and post-test data on student learning outcomes were collected across seven Teaching Strategies GOLD (TS GOLD) mathematical constructs (counts, quantifies, connects numerals with quantity, spatial relationships, shapes, compares and measures, and knowledge of patterns). Results indicated statistically significant differences in treatment group post-test data for three TS GOLD constructs: (1) quantifies, (2) shapes, and (3) spatial relationships. Additional regression analyses indicated two TS GOLD constructs: (1) quantifies and (2) knowledge of patterns were significant predictors of children’s post-test outcomes after controlling for covariates (e.g., age and gender). To conclude, implications of the study and future research opportunities related to leveraging interactive read-alouds to teach early childhood mathematics concepts are discussed.
Mink, D. V., & Fraser, B. J. (2005). Evaluation of a K–5 mathematics program which integrates children’s literature: Classroom environment and attitudes. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 3(1), 59-85.
Abstract: This article describes a one-year study of 120 fifth grade students whose teachers participated in a program entitled Project SMILE (Science and Mathematics Integrated with Literary Experiences). The purpose of the study was to determine the extent to which the classroom implementation of Project SMILE positively influenced the classroom environment and student attitudes toward reading, writing and mathematics. This was accomplished by, first, facilitating a series of professional development workshops with the teachers and, subsequently, asking these teachers to use the strategies with their students in their elementary school classrooms. The research represents one of the relatively few studies that have employed learning environment dimensions as criteria of effectiveness in the evaluation of educational innovations. Methodologically, our study supported previous research that successfully combined qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection. The learning environment and attitude scales exhibited satisfactory internal consistency reliability and discriminant validity and, additionally, the actual form of most learning environment scales was capable of differentiating between the perceptions of students in different classrooms. The implementation of SMILE was found to have a positive impact on the students of the teachers who participated in the inservice program in that students’ attitudes to mathematics and reading improved and there was congruence between students’ actual and preferred classroom environment on the scales of satisfaction and difficulty. As well, prior research was replicated in that students’ satisfaction was greater in classrooms with a more positive learning environment, especially in terms of student cohesiveness. Finally, qualitative data-gathering methods were used to construct a case study of the mathematics classes of a teacher who attended the SMILE professional development. This case study supported and illuminated the results from the questionnaire survey concerning the effectiveness of Project SMILE in terms of student attitudes and classroom environment.
Nesmith, S. & Cooper, S. (2010). Trade books in the mathematics classroom: The impact of many, varied perspectives on determinations of quality. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 24(4), 279-297.
Abstract: The integration of children's trade books in the mathematics classroom has experienced a dramatic surge in its popularity; yet, though the positive benefits of this strategy have been well documented, these benefits may only be realized if the literature is of high quality. Utilizing a mathematics trade book evaluation instrument, this inquiry explored the impact of varied backgrounds and perspectives on determinations of quality. Utilizing 30 reviewers from five distinct groups and conducting more than 180 evaluations of six trade books, it was found that the background of the reviewer and the number of reviewers involved in the evaluation affected quality determinations. The results indicate that though instruments such as Hunsader's provide a valuable tool for evaluating mathematics literature, the evaluation process, including the number and the background of those involved in the review, greatly affects evaluation results. Subsequently, it is vital that teachers and other educators who either incorporate, or recommend the incorporation of, mathematics trade books actively explore and assess the evaluation and recommendation processes.
Nesmith, S. M., Purdum-Cassidy, B., Cooper, S., & Rogers, R. D. (2017). Love it, like it, or leave it - Elementary preservice teachers’ field-based perspectives toward the integration of literature in mathematics. Action in Teacher Education, 39(3), 321-339.
Abstract: Integrating literature in mathematics is a powerful strategy used by many teachers to meet the reformative goals outlined by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. This article reports a teacher education study in which 15 elementary preservice teachers engaged in a task that challenged them to link the pedagogical strategy of integrating literature in mathematics to their field-based utilization of the practice. Qualitative data gathered during participants’ concurrent enrollment in a mathematics methods course and a field-based practicum course and recorded through reflections and focus-group sessions revealed variances in participants’ perspectives toward the practice. Results indicate that the participants’ perspectives were overwhelmingly positive and variances were linked to the participants’ personal growth and development as educators. Implications and suggestions allow teacher educators to utilize perspective variances to support preservice teachers’ abilities to link the theories espoused in methods courses to the classroom utilization of said theories.
Nurnberger-Haag, J. (2017). A cautionary tale: How children's books (mis)teach shapes. Early Education and Development, 28(4), 415-440.
Abstract: Research Findings: Children’s conceptions of shapes, including misconceptions, are quite robust by 6 years old and persist into adulthood, so it is important to inspect early sources of these conceptions. This study aimed to uncover whether children’s books about shapes could be a source of inaccurate initial learning that remains with many adults in spite of school instruction. Thus, the study investigated the content of trade books to identify (a) 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional shapes portrayed, (b) reasoning level used, (c) explicitly accurate and inaccurate information conveyed, and (d) implicit inaccuracies conveyed. This content analysis of 66 shape books found that books portrayed a limited range of shapes in ways that encouraged low-level reasoning. A total of 76% of books had at least 1 explicit inaccuracy of 2-dimensional shapes. Explicit and implicit inaccuracies throughout the sample were consistent with common child and adult difficulties with 2-dimensional shapes. Practice or Policy: This study provides insights into possible sources of shape conceptions. Such knowledge suggests instructional implications and future research about ways in which teachers, librarians, parents, and other caregivers might better select and use trade books to facilitate more accurate shape concepts for young children that may have long-lasting influence.
Nurnberger-Haag, J., Alexander, A.N., & Powell, S.R. (2020). What counts in number books? A content-domain specific typology to evaluate children’s books for mathematics. Mathematical Thinking & Learning. https://doi.org/10.1080/10986065.2020.1777365
Abstract: Although the complexity of children’s number learning is recognized, trade books about number have been treated as a simple, undifferentiated set. This analysis of 186 children’s books, however, categorized a distinct subset of books about number as counting books. These counting books were complex with regard to portrayal of counting sequences, explicitness of counting, and degree of rationality. The analysis yielded the multi-dimensional Counting Book Typology, which revealed nuanced ways counting books accurately portray numerical ideas as well as ways books could mislead young readers. The typology could aid researchers investigating how children learn with books to focus study design decisions on particular mathematics content features, which would clarify and strengthen resulting implications. Furthermore, this study revealed the need for more such conceptual tools to advance theorizing about learning math with children’s books, which has been missing in research and practice.
Nurnberger-Haag, J., Scheuermann, A, McTeer, J.S., (2021). A field guide to whole number representations in children’s books. International Journal of Education in Mathematics, Science and Technology (IJEMST), 9(4), 697-726. https://doi.org/10.46328/ijemst.1681
Abstract: Trade books are a common resource used to teach children mathematical ideas. Yet, detailed analyses of the mathematics content of such books to determine potential impacts on learning are needed. This study investigated how trade books represent whole numbers. A two-pronged approach was used a) one team documented every way 197 books represented numerical ideas and b) another team used standards to identify ideal representations. A third team validated the traits on 67 books. Greater variation than expected was documented (103 traits identified) and organized into a field guide for researchers to consult to design studies about how particular traits influence number learning. Studies could investigate how a particular trait supports learning or experimentally compare a selected combination of the 45 pictorial, 45 written symbol, 10 tactile, 2 kinesthetic, and 1 auditory trait. Implications for practice include recognizing what representations are present or missing from books used in classrooms. The study also serves as an example of how the field of mathematics education would benefit from adopting structures from disciplinary science, such as field guides, to inform how we organize phenomena of mathematics learning.
Nurnberger-Haag, J., Singh, R., & Wernet, J.L. (2020). An atypical approach to improve typical issues with pre-service teachers’ geometric shape knowledge. Issues in the Undergraduate Mathematics Preparation of School Teachers. http://www.k-12prep.math.ttu.edu/journal/1.contentknowledge/numberger01/article.pdf
Abstract: Although geometric shape content should be mastered by early high school, many preservice teachers (PSTs), particularly those in elementary and special education, have limited yet deeply engrained shape concepts. This poses challenges for how to teach shape concepts in content courses for PSTs. Thus, this study tested an approach atypical for a content course [i.e., through evaluating the mathematics in children’s books]. PSTs’ positive perceptions of this 40-minute activity and the specific ways their content knowledge did and did not change were reported. The results could influence instruction of mathematics content courses for PSTs in powerful ways with minimal time as well as open research opportunities.
Nurnberger-Haag, J., Singh, R., & Wernet, J.L., & Alexander, A. N. (2021). “Books I used as a child were mathematically incorrect”: Reasons to use children’s shape-related books as a resource to improve mathematical knowledge for teaching. International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, 16(3), em0642.
Abstract: Some goals of mathematics teacher education include ensuring that pre-service teachers (PSTs) have strong content knowledge, the skill to anticipate and interpret student thinking, the ability to plan how to respond, and the ability to critically select resources for instruction. These goals are especially challenging for the topic of geometric shapes. Thus, we share an instructional activity that focuses PSTs’ attention on an inaccurate resource of geometric information, children’s books, to accomplish these goals in mathematics content as well as methods courses. Analyses of surveys and content assessments conducted to assess efficacy of the Shape Book Critique Activity were interpreted with the Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching (MKT) framework. Based on the findings we suggest that this short 40-minute activity is a promising way to promote PSTs’ growth in three aspects of MKT for geometric shapes.
O’Neill, D. K., Pearce, M. J., & Pick, J. L. (2004). Preschool children’s narratives and performance on the Peabody Individualized Achievement Test – Revised: Evidence of a relation between early narrative and later mathematical ability. First Language, 24(2), 149–183.
Abstract: In this study, different measures derived from 41 3- to 4-year-old children’s selfgenerated picture-book narratives and their performance on a general measure of language development (TELD-2, Hresko, Reid & Hammill, 1991) were evaluated with respect to their possible predictive relation two years later with 5 areas of academic achievement (General information, Reading recognition, Reading comprehension, Math, Spelling) assessed using the Peabody Individualized Achievement Test – Revised (PIAT-R, Markwardt, 1998). Children’s TELD-2 scores were significantly predictive of their General information scores. The narrative measures of conjunction use, event content, perspective shift, and mental state reference were significantly predictive of later Math scores. Post-hocanalyses revealed that, for the same children, the observed relations with Math achievement did not arise with nonspontaneous adult-prompted narrations.
Önal, H., & Altiner, E. C. (2022). The effect of the use of concept cartoons on students’ success in mathematics (time measurement). The Journal of Educational Research, 1-12.
Abstract: The aim of this study is to determine the effect of the use of concept cartoons on the academic achievements of students in a mathematics course. The model of the research is based on a quasi-experimental design from quantitative research methods and supported by an interview from the qualitative methods. The purpose of qualitative data collected by interviewing teachers is to support quantitative data. For this reason, a triangulation mixed design was used in the research. A total of 67 (35 experimental-32 control) fourth graders constitute the participants of the study. The “time measurement success test” developed by the researchers was used as a data collection tool. In the four-week practice, the experimental group was taught with concept cartoons, and in the control group, lessons were taught taking into account the classic approach. According to the results, a significant difference was determined in terms of the academic achievement in the mathematics course between the experimental group in which concept cartoons were used and the control group in which the classic approach was used.
Powell, S. R., & Nurnberger-Haag, J. (2015). Everybody counts, but usually just to 10! A systematic analysis of number representations in children’s books. Early Education and Development, 26(3), 377-398.
Abstract: Research Findings: Teachers and parents often use trade books to introduce or reinforce mathematics concepts. To date, an analysis of the early numeracy content of trade books has not been conducted. Consequently, this study evaluated the properties of numbers and counting within trade books. We coded 160 trade books targeted at establishing early numeracy skill in children to determine the numbers included; the representations of number presented; and how books used representations of number to inform children about numbers, including counting. The main findings included limited opportunity to learn the number 0 and numbers beyond 10 as well as limited exposure to multiple representations of number deemed necessary to build strong number understanding and counting skills. Practice or Policy: We discuss practical implications for the selection and use of trade books about number with young children.
Prendergast, M., Harbison, L., Miller, S., & Trakulphadetkrai, N. T. (2018). Pre-service and in-service teachers’ perceptions on the integration of children’s literature in mathematics teaching and learning in Ireland. Irish Educational Studies. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/03323315.2018.1484302
Abstract: The beneficial role that children’s literature plays in facilitating the meaningful integration and advancement of literacy and numeracy in the primary mathematics classroom has been well validated by research findings internationally. In Ireland, supporting the development of literacy and numeracy is a key educational priority. Consequently, a myriad of policy initiatives such as the Literacy and Numeracy for Learning and Life strategy have been introduced. All aim to address concerns about young people’s lack of basic literacy and numeracy skills and to consider new teaching and learning modalities to enhance same. Despite this, no official emphasis is given to incorporating literature in the Irish primary school mathematics curriculum. Therefore, it is pertinent and timely that this study seeks to ascertain pre-service and in-service teachers’ views on the use of literature to support mathematics teaching and learning and to investigate perceived barriers to and enablers for the integration of children’s literature in the mathematics classroom in Ireland. The analysis of the findings will be framed using Ajzen’s (1991) Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) model. This research is part of a large international research collaboration (see www.mathsthroughstories.org), in which the beliefs of teachers with respect to children’s literature are investigated.
Purdum-Cassidy, B., Nesmith, S., & Meyer, R. D., & Cooper, S. (2015). What are they asking? An analysis of the questions planned by prospective teachers when integrating literature in mathematics. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 18(1), 79-99.
Abstract: Questioning is considered a powerful tool in mediating students’ knowledge construction and conceptual understanding. In this qualitative study, the mathematics-focused lesson plans of elementary education prospective teachers provided data to determine the ways that the approach of literature integration in mathematics influenced prospective teachers’ planned questions. All prospective teachers were required to incorporate children’s literature within the mathematics lessons they planned and presented during a field-based teaching experience. Analysis revealed variances in the numbers, types, and foci of prospective teachers’ planned questions. These findings allow speculation that the utilization of mathematics literature integration allowed many of the prospective teachers to create reform-oriented, constructivist mathematics-focused questions and experiences for their students.
Purpura, D. J., Napoli, A. R., Wehrspann, E. A., & Gold, Z. S. (2017). Causal connections between mathematical language and mathematical knowledge: A dialogic reading Intervention. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 10(1), 116-137.
Abstract: The acquisition of early mathematical knowledge is critical for successful long-term academic development. Mathematical language is one of the strongest predictors of children's early mathematical success. Findings from previous studies have provided correlational evidence supporting the importance of mathematical language to the development of children's mathematics skills, but there is limited causal evidence supporting this link. To address this research gap, 47 Head Start children were randomly assigned to a mathematical language intervention group or a business-as-usual group. Over the course of eight weeks, interventionists implemented a dialogic reading intervention focused on quantitative and spatial mathematical language. At posttest, students in the intervention group significantly outperformed the students in the comparison group not only on a mathematical language assessment, but on a mathematical knowledge assessment as well. These findings indicate that increasing children's exposure to mathematical language can positively affect their general mathematics skills. This study is an important first step in providing causal evidence of the importance of early mathematical language for children's general mathematical knowledge and the potential for mathematical language interventions to increase children's overall mathematics abilities.
Purpura, D. J., Schmitt, S. A., Napoli, A. R., Dobbs-Oates, J., King, Y. A., Hornburg, C. B., Westerberg, L., Borriello, G. A., Bryant, L. M., Anaya, L. Y., Kung, M., Litkowski, E., Lin, J., & Rolan, E. (2021). Engaging caregivers and children in picture books: A family-implemented mathematical language intervention. Journal of Educational Psychology, 113(7), 1338–1353.
Abstract: The goal of this study was to evaluate immediate and delayed effects of a caregiver-implemented picture book intervention to support children’s mathematical language and numeracy skills. Eighty-four 3- to 5-year-olds (M age = 4.14) were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 40) or active control (n = 44) conditions. Participants in the intervention condition received three researcher-designed picture books with embedded mathematical language content. The active control group received similar books without mathematical language content. All families were asked to read each book a total of four times over 4 weeks (a total of 12 reading sessions). Children were pretested, posttested, and delayed (8 weeks) posttested on mathematical language and numeracy. The intervention resulted in significant positive effects on mathematical language and numeracy at the posttest. At delayed posttest, the mathematical language effects were not statistically significant, but the numeracy effects persisted. However, when only examining the quantitative language items that aligned with the intervention, the effects of the intervention were significant at both immediate and delayed posttests. Findings suggest picture book interventions can have positive impacts on children’s early skills.
Rathé, S., Torbeyns, J., Hannula-Sormunen, M.-M., & Verschaffel, L. (2016). Kindergartners’ spontaneous focusing on numerosity in relation to their number-related utterances during numerical picture book reading. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 18(2), 125-141.
Abstract: This study investigated the relationship between kindergartners’ Spontaneous Focusing on Numerosity (SFON) and their number-related utterances during numerical picture book reading. Forty-eight 4- to 5-year-olds were individually interviewed via a SFON Imitation Task and a numerical picture book reading activity. We expected differences in the frequency of number-related utter- ances during picture book reading between children with a higher SFON score, providing more number-related utterances, and children with a lower SFON score. Our results showed large inter-individual differences in both kindergart- ners’ SFON and the frequency of their number-related utterances during picture book reading, yet SFON was not related to the frequency of number- related utterances. This unexpected result is discussed in terms of its scientific, methodological, and educational implications.
Rogers, R. M., Cooper, S., Nesmith, S. M., & Purdum-Cassidy, B. (2015). Ways that preservice teachers integrate children's literature into mathematics lessons. The Teacher Educator, 50(3), 170-186.
Abstract: Children's literature involving mathematics provides a common, natural context for the sharing of mathematics. To learn more about how preservice teachers included children's literature in their mathematics lessons, a study was conducted over two semesters during a required field experience component of an undergraduate teacher education program. The preservice teachers were required to use a children's literature book to explore a mathematical concept in three mathematics-focused lesson plans. The qualitative data analysis revealed that in planning mathematics lessons to incorporate children's literature, preservice teachers tended to focus on basic approaches. Specifically, the preservice teachers most often used a book as context for review, to develop a concept, or to use with manipulatives. As a result, it is important for teacher educators to provide the opportunity for preservice teachers to learn more about the various ways of integrating literature and provide the necessary support for incorporating these strategies into their lessons.
Russo, J., Russo, T., & Roche, A. (2021). Using Rich Narratives to Engage Students in Worthwhile Mathematics: Children’s Literature, Movies and Short Films. Educational Sciences, 11(10). https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11100588
Abstract: Using children’s literature to support mathematics instruction has been connected to positive academic outcomes and learning dispositions; however, less is known about the use of audiovisual based narrative mediums to support student mathematical learning experiences. The current exploratory, qualitative study involved teaching three lessons based on challenging, problem solving tasks to two classes of Australian Year (Grade) 5 students (10 and 11 year olds). These tasks were developed from various narratives, each portrayed through a different medium (movie clip, short film, picture story book). Post lesson interviews were undertaken with 24 students inviting them to compare and contrast this lesson sequence with their usual mathematics instruction. Drawing on a self-determination theory lens, our analysis revealed that these lessons were experienced by students as both highly enjoyable and mathematically challenging. More specifically, it was found that presenting mathematics tasks based on rich and familiar contexts and providing meaningful choices about how to approach their mathematical work supported student autonomy. In addition, there was evidence that the narrative presentation supported student understanding of the mathematics through making the tasks clearer and more accessible, whilst the audiovisual mediums (movie clip, short film) in particular provided a dynamic representation of key mathematical ideas (e.g., transformation and scale). Students indicated an eclectic range of preferences in terms of their preferred narrative mediums for exploring mathematical ideas. Our findings support the conclusion that educators and researchers focused on the benefits of teaching mathematics through picture story books consider extending their definition of narrative to encompass other mediums, such as movie clips and short films.
Segal-Drori, O., Kalmanovich, L. B. H., & Shamir, A. (2018). Electronic book for promoting emergent math: A comparison between kindergarteners at risk for learning disabilities and with typical development. Journal of Educational Computing Research. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0735633118769459
Abstract: The aim of the study was to examine the effect of an activity with an educational electronic storybook with math content on the emergent math of kindergarteners at risk for learning disabilities (LD) compared with kindergarteners with typical development (TD). The study included 107 kindergarteners aged 4.6 to 7. Both the participants at risk for LD (n = 51) and those with TD (n = 56) were randomly divided into two groups: an experimental group that received an intervention with the electronic book and a control group that participated in the regular kindergarten activity during that time. The findings indicated greater improvement in the intervention groups compared with the control groups in the measures “essence of addition” and “ordinal numbers.” Both the group at risk for LD and the group with TD showed significant improvement following the intervention. The implications of these results for young children in general, and for kindergarteners at risk for LD in particular, are discussed.
Shamir, A. & Baruch, D. (2012). Educational e-books: A support for vocabulary and early math for children at risk for learning disabilities. Educational Media International, 49(1), 33-47.
Abstract: Mathematical learning difficulties can originate at an early age. However, research on young children’s math development, especially those who are at risk, is in its early stages. The current study is the first to examine the effects of an activity with an educational e-book on emergent math with 52 preschoolers at risk for learning disability (ALD). The effects on their emergent vocabulary of the e-book intervention was also tested. The findings revealed that following the intervention, children in the experimental e-book group improved both their vocabulary and early math skills as compared to the control group who engaged in their regular preschool activities. The implications of these results are discussed.
Skoumpourdi, C. & Mpakopoulou, I. (2011). The prints: A picture book for pre-formal geometry. Early Childhood Education Journal, 39(3), 197-206.
Abstract: A pre-test questionnaire was conducted in a kindergarten and it showed that, although the children were able to give various examples of objects, from their everyday lives, that are similar to solid shapes, the examples they gave for plane figures were also tangible objects. Since it is suggested that geometry instruction has to begin early, children need rich experiences of the connections between plane figures and solid shapes. The researchers provided a picture book as an impetus for kindergartners’ mathematical thinking. We developed and shared a picture book, The Prints, as an auxiliary means for helping kindergarten children identify the print of a solid shape. Through the picture book—which presents plane figures as prints of solids real life objects—children could link plane figures and solid shapes. The research questions we posed were: (a) Can kindergarten children identify the origin of the plane figures presented? (b) Can they relate the objects presented to the plane figures presented? After sharing the picture book—through the storytelling tradition—and completing the related activities, the identification of the print of a solid shape became more accessible and more engaging to children. They were also able to give appropriate examples of plane figures from their everyday lives. This finding was affirmed by the post-test conducted.
Stites, M. L., Sonnenschein, S., Dowling, R., & Gay, B. (2020). Mathematics learning opportunities in preschool: Where does the classroom library fit in? Early Education and Development. https://doi.org/10.1080/10409289.2020.1721403
Abstract: These two studies examined the different mathematical opportunities provided in preschool classrooms, with a particular focus on the availability of mathematical-themed books in classroom libraries. In study one, we interviewed teachers (N= 150) using an online survey to assess the content of preschool classroom libraries. In study two, we interviewed eight preschool teachers to examine their perceptions of how they teach mathematics and if they view the classroom library as a place for mathematical skill acquisition. Results of the online survey indicated that while teachers encourage the use of classroom libraries, these contained statistically fewer mathematics themed books. Teachers also spontaneously reported that mathematics was something done in the “math center” and not the library. Preschool teachers reported providing many mathematical opportunities throughout the day, but did not necessarily utilize the classroom library for mathematics. Policy or Practice: Given the prevalence of classroom libraries in preschools, we may be missing an important means of providing mathematical exploration, exposure, and opportunities for young children. This potential missed opportunity is an area for additional research.
Toh, T. L., Cheng, L. P., Ho, S. Y., Jiang, H., & Lim, K. M. (2017). Use of comics to enhance students’ learning for the development of the twenty-first century competencies in the mathematics classroom. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 37(4), 437-452.
Abstract: This paper discusses the use of comics in teaching mathematics in the secondary mathematics classroom. We explicate how the use of comics in teaching mathematics can prepare students for the twenty-first century competencies. We developed an alternative teaching package using comics for two lower secondary mathematics topics. This alternative teaching package consists of (1) several sets of comic strips expounding all related mathematical concepts in a lively way; (2) tiered practice questions for learning reinforcement; and (3) a set of proposed lesson outlines with suggestions on how to use the comics for mathematics teaching. We also report how one of the teachers in our study used this teaching package in her mathematics lessons. Her lessons were video-recorded and 11 students were interviewed to help us understand how the mathematics comics lessons were enacted and the students’ perception of comics as instruction. We identified instances in which the teacher tweaked the provided resource to further enhance student learning and incorporated elements of the twenty-first century competencies during her lessons. Through selected student interviews, we also identified instances in which students commented on their gain from the new approach from the perspective of the twenty-first century competencies.
Uscianowski, C., Almeda, M. V., & Ginsburg, H. P. (2020). Differences in the complexity of math and literacy questions parents pose during storybook reading. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 50(3), 40-50.
Abstract: Parent–child interactions, such as the complexity of their talk during storybook reading, can play a vital role in supporting the development of children’s literacy and math skills. Given that parents may have different beliefs and confidence helping their children learn literacy and math, the present study compares the level of abstraction, or complexity, of questions posed by parents when prompted to help their child learn about math or literacy topics during storybook reading. We also sought to identify factors that influence parents’ use of abstract questions within the story. A total of 172 parents of 3.5–4.5-year-old children named a question they would pose to their child about the character’s actions, numbers, or shapes on 18 storybook pages as part of an online survey. Results revealed that storybook pages without math content evoked questions of significantly higher abstraction than did pages with math content. Parents’ confidence and enjoyment helping their child learn literacy and parents’ educational attainment were found to be significantly and positively related to their use of complex questions for character’s actions, while parents’ reading anxieties had a negative relation to the complexity of their questions. In contrast, parents’ rating of their child’s number ability was significantly and positively related to their use of complex language for number while no significant effects were found for shape. In addition, parents posed more complex questions about number to their sons than daughters. Overall, our findings suggest that parents may benefit from support in engaging their children in challenging and abstract math-related talk about number and shape during storybook reading in order to promote their children’s mathematical development.
Van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, M. & Elia, I. (2012). Developing a framework for the evaluation of picturebooks that support kindergartners’ learning of mathematics. Research in Mathematics Education, 14(1), 17-47.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate what experts in the use of picturebooks in mathematics education consider powerful characteristics of such books in the support of young children’s learning of mathematics. The study started by investigating experts’ views of such characteristics, as reflected in academic and professional publications on the use of picturebooks in mathematics education. This resulted in a first version of a framework of learning-supportive characteristics of picturebooks. In the second part of the study the framework was refined, and its tenability was tested through a four-round Delphi method, in which seven experts were asked to comment on, and work with, the framework when evaluating three picturebooks. The experts’ evaluations of these books showed that a larger number of learning-supportive characteristics were identified when using the framework than when not using it.
Van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, M. & Elia, I. (2011). Kindergartners’ performance in length measurement and the effect of picture book reading. ZDM Mathematics Education, 43, 621–635.
Abstract: This paper addresses: firstly, kindergartners’ performance in length measurement, the components of their performance and its growth over time; secondly, the possibility to develop kindergartners’ performance in length measurement by reading to them from picture books. To answer the research questions, an experiment with a pretest–posttest experimental control group design was carried out involving nine experimental classes and nine control classes. The children in the experimental group participated in a 3-month picture book program that, among other things, spotlighted the measurement of length situated in meaningful contexts. Before and after the intervention, the children’s performance in length mea- surement was assessed in both groups. The responses of 308 kindergartners (4- to 6-year-olds) from two kinder- garten years (K1 and K2) were analyzed. Analysis of the pretest data showed that the measurement tasks included in the test were not easy to solve. However, the children belonging to K2 did better than the younger children belonging to K1. Within children’s performance, three components could be identified: holistic visual recognition, ordering and unitizing. Finally, the effect of the interven- tion was investigated by comparing the performances of the experimental and control group in the pretest and the posttest. We found a weak but significant effect of reading picture books to children on their general measurement performance. However, this effect was only found for K1 children on the component of holistic visual recognition.
Van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, M., Elia, I., & Robitzsch, A. (2016). Effects of reading picture books on kindergartners’ mathematics performance. Educational Psychology, 36(2), 323-346.
Abstract: This article describes a field experiment with a pretest–posttest control group design which investigated the potential of reading picture books to children for supporting their mathematical understanding. The study involved 384 children from 18 kindergarten classes in 18 schools in the Netherlands. During three months, the children in the nine experimental classes were read picture books. Data analysis revealed that, when controlled for relevant covariates, the picture book reading programme had a positive effect (d = .13) on kindergartners’ mathematics performance as measured by a project test containing items on number, measurement and geometry. Compared to the increase from pretest to posttest in the control group, the increase in the experimental group was 22% larger. No significant differential intervention effects were found between subgroups based on kindergarten year, age, home language, socio-economic status and mathematics and language ability, but a significant intervention effect was found for girls and not for boys.
Van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, M. & Van den Boogaard, S. (2008). Picture books as an impetus for kindergartners' mathematical thinking. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 10(4), 341-373.
Abstract: Although there is evidence that the use of picture books affects young children's achievement scores in mathematics, little is known about the cognitive engagement and, in particular, the mathematical thinking that is evoked when young children are read a picture book. The focus of the case study reported in this article is on the cognitive engagement that is facilitated by the picture books themselves and not on how this engagement is prompted by a reader. The book under investigation, Vijfde zijn [Being Fifth], is a picture book of high literary quality that was not written for the purpose of teaching mathematics. The story is about a doctor's waiting room and touches on backwards counting and spatial orientation only tacitly as part of the narrative. Four 5 year olds were each read the book by one of the authors without any questioning or probing. The reading sessions took place in school, outside the classroom. A detailed coding framework was developed for analyzing the children's utterances that provided an in-depth picture of the children's spontaneous cognitive engagement. Surprisingly, almost half the utterances were mathematics-related. The findings of the study support the idea that reading children picture books without explicit instruction or prompting has large potential for mathematically engaging children.
Van den heuvel-Panhuizen, M., Van den Boogaard, S., & Doig, B. (2009). Picture books stimulate the learning of mathematics. Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, 34(3), 30-39.
Abstract: In this article, we describe our experiences using picture books to provide young children (five- to six-year-olds) with a learning environment where they can explore and extend preliminary notions of mathematics-related concepts, without being taught these concepts explicitly. We gained these experiences in the PICO-ma project, which aimed to generate more knowledge about the effect of picture books on young children’s learning of mathematics.The project’s goal is to investigate how picture books can contribute to the development of mathematical concepts in young children, and how the actions of the teacher can strengthen the characteristics of picture books that support learning.The reading sessions described in this article were not intended to be mathematics ‘lessons’. Instead, the reading sessions were intended to tell the children a pleasant story and, at the same time, give them something to think about. Based on our research we provide reasons for using picture books to develop mathematical thinking, and include recommendations for practitioners interested in using picture books for mathematics learning.
Vandermaas-Peeler, M., Nelson, J., Bumpass, C., & Sassine, B. (2009). Numeracy‐related exchanges in joint storybook reading and play. International Journal of Early Years Education, 17(1), 67-84.
Abstract: Studies of the processes by which parents encourage early numerical development in the context of parent–child interactions during routine, culturally relevant activities at home are scarce. The present study was designed to investigate spontaneous exchanges related to numeracy during parent–child interactions in reading and play activities at home. Thirty‐seven families with a four‐year‐old child (13 low‐income) were observed. Two types of numeracy interactions were of interest: socio‐cultural numeracy exchanges, explaining the use and value of money or numbers in routine activities such as shopping or cooking, and mathematical exchanges, including counting, quantity or size comparisons. Results indicated that high‐income parents engaged in more mathematical exchanges during both reading and play than did low‐income parents, though there were no differences in the initiation of socio‐cultural numeracy exchanges. The focus of parental guidance related to numeracy was conceptual and embedded in the activity context, with few dyads focusing on counting or numbers per se. The findings suggest the importance of parent education efforts that incorporate numeracy‐related discourse in the context of daily routines to augment young children’s numeracy development.
Ward, J. M., Mazzocco, M. M., Bock, A. M, & Prokes, N. A. (2017). Are content and structural features of counting books aligned with research on numeracy development? Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 39, 47-63.
Abstract: In this study, we assessed how well children’s counting books are aligned with current research on children’s emerging numeracy. We coded structural and content features of 120 readily available counting books, focusing on features of how numbers were presented, features of items and sets to be counted, and structural features that varied across books. We found that several features that may support learning to count—such as presenting numbers in ascending sequence—were frequently identified in the books we coded; but we also found that features that may interfere with learning to count also occurred frequently, such as presenting multiple distractors on pages with items to be counted. Explicit or even implicit emphasis on counting principles such as cardinality were quite infrequent across most books, and nearly half of all books had at least some pages depicting inconsistencies between the number of items in an illustrated set and the numeral or number word accompanying the set. There was some co-occurrence of select features: Books with many distractors were more likely to have obstructed items within sets to be counted, and were less likely to explicitly draw links between sets and numerals or number words, compared to books that were relatively distractor-free. Considered together, these findings highlight the need for research on how features of counting books and other early mathematics-related books may affect shared-reading and the development of children’s numerical and mathematical thinking.
Wheeler, A., & Mallam, W. (2020). Examing type and quality of preservice teachers’ lessons based on children’s literature. International Journal on Teaching and Learning Mathematics, 3(1), 1-11.
Abstract: This qualitiative research explores the types and levels of mathematical lesson tasks that 60 future elementary and middle school teachers created during an undergraduate mathematics content and pedagogy course. Data collection consisted of 51 children’s book inspired activities written by the preservice teachers. Using Stein et al.’s Task Analysis Guide as an assessment tool, the researchers coded the activities into 1 of 4 categories, as well as categorized each activity based on its mathematical content using the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics. Results showed that a majority of the PSTs wrote activities that were classified as Procedures with Connections. Also, a majority of the activities were geometry-based, specifically transformations and two-dimesional measurements. Implications for teaching include the fact that preservice elementary and middle school teachers can create mathematics lessons based on children’s literature, which often can include mathematical tasks that are making connections to procedural mathematics or even higher order thinking tasks.
Yang, D.-C., Sianturi, I. A. J., Chen, C.-H., Su, Y.-W., & Trakulphadetkrai, N. V. (In press.). Taiwanese in-service teachers’ perceptions on the integration of children’s literature in mathematics teaching and learning. Educational Studies in Mathematics.
Abstract: This study is part of the international survey studies on teachers’ beliefs concerning the integration of children’s literature in mathematics teaching and learning, and this paper reports the findings of the thematic analysis of open-ended survey responses elicited from 287 primary school teachers and teacher trainees in Taiwan. Using the seminal social psychology theory, the Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1991) to frame the findings, this study highlights 11 perceived barriers and 11 perceived enablers that are thought to influence the teachers’ intention to integrate children’s literature in their mathematics teaching. More specifically, we identified time constraint, lack of pedagogical knowledge and confidence, and resource constraint as being the most-cited perceived barriers, while pedagogical benefits, desire to improve teaching, and enabling social norms were identified as the top perceived enablers. Ultimately, this article offers several recommendations to address some of these key perceived barriers.
Yilmaz Genc, M.M., Akinci Cosgun, A., & Pala, S. (2017). A study of mathematical content provided in illustrated children’s books. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 69, 159-175.
Abstract: Purpose: Early childhood is of critical importance in terms of cognitive, affective and physical development. Undoubtedly, a substantially stimulating environment and opportunities offered to children, as well as appropriate educational materials, have an impact on their development. The object of this study is to investigate the mathematical content included in illustrated children’s books prepared for pre-school children. Research Methods: The research was planned as a descriptive study, and criterion sampling method was used in creating the study group. One hundred seventy-four illustrated children’s books offered for sale by bookstores in Adana and Ankara provinces and included by academicians in their private libraries were surveyed. As a result of the survey, 52 illustrated children's books that met the criteria constituted the research study group. A document analysis was conducted to collect research data. Thereunder, a “book review form” developed by the researchers was used to investigate the mathematical content of the books. Implications for Research and Practice: As a result of the study, it was discovered that the books investigated most frequently contained the numbers and operations category, followed by geometry, measurement, algebra, data analysis and probability, respectively. Furthermore, the books were found not to contain specific categories or use of different methods and tools in calculations, distinction, algebraic symbols and mathematical models, quantitative changes, symmetry and translation movements, repeated measures, data collection, data organization, data visualization, data recognition, and understanding and applying basic probability concepts. Such results suggest that the illustrated children's books published in our county fail to satisfy the mathematical standards recommended by nationally and internationally recognized programs as the standards to be taught during the pre-school period, and that efforts must be made to enhance the quality of books published for such purposes. For future studies, it is recommend that researchers examine in detail how mathematical categories provided in the books are dealt with, or if and how teachers include illustrated children's books in mathematics activities performed in class.
Young-Loveridge, J. M. (2004). Effects on early numeracy of a program using number books and games. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 19, 82–98.
Abstract: The purpose of the study was to explore the effectiveness of a program designed to improve the number skills of 5-year-olds. The program involved the withdrawal of children from the classroom in pairs to work with a specialist teacher using number books and games. Participants were 106 children who represented approximately the lower two-thirds of scores on a measure of numeracy. Twenty-three children participated in the program, and 83 served as contrasts. The program increased the numeracy levels of the children in the program and produced significantly greater gains in numeracy than were evident for the children in the contrast groups. Once the intervention program ceased, the magnitude of these effects gradually diminished over time, but the benefits of participation in the program remained statistically significant for more than a year after the program finished.